Human Factors is a broad scientific field of study pertaining to human interaction with technology and the environment. The study of human factors focuses on human capabilities, behavior and performance in a wide variety of situations.
In the context of traffic accident reconstruction analysis, human factors is most commonly applied to the driver of a motor vehicle. In nearly every litigated traffic accident reconstruction and personal injury case, human factors and driver performance are scrutinized. The issues and corresponding questions that arise are typically related to one or more of the following human factor elements: perception-reaction-response, visibility, sightlines, attention, distraction, alcohol & drugs, fatigue, traffic control devices, highway signage, vehicle ergonomics, roadway & environmental conditions, lighting, driver strategy and tactics.
A successful (perhaps defined as uneventful or not harmful) transportation experience for all is dependent on multiple drivers keeping the above list of human factors elements under a constant state of checks and balances. When a breakdown or lapse in human capability or performance occurs with respect to drivers managing these elements in concert, then the chances for an accident increase.
Part of any accident cause analysis or liability assessment incorporates a determination whether driver error and/or other human factors were significant contributing factors.